That is to say, the Russian party has begun a complex and special work of reconciliation in Syria. · This model and its implications confirm once again that the regime and its allies are unable to find a lasting solution in Syria without a robust international presence that would guarantee the security and well-being of the population. On the contrary, they have only succeeded in reinforcing chaos and creating new waves of silent expulsions from areas of reconciliation. In late February 2011, some students wrote slogans denouncing the Assad regime on the walls of their school, inspired by the events of the Arab Spring in the region. One of the branches of the security apparatus led by Bashar al-Assad, Mr. Atef Najib, rushed to arrest him. The students were tortured and their nails torn off; their families were threatened with arrest as they tried to find out where they were located. The protests spread to other schools and sparked widespread peaceful protests that spread to other governorates. Peaceful protests in Daraa and throughout Syria have continued in the coming months. The regime responded by killing protesters. The repression and mass arrests continued, and the situation turned into clashes that intensified as more and more regime soldiers moved to the revolutionary side. The regime was eventually driven out of the entire region and the conflict turned into bombings and giant battles that eventually ended with Russia`s participation.
Overwhelming force on opposition groups forced them to sign a reconciliation agreement with Russia as a guarantor in mid-2018. The third round of the Astana meetings, held between 14 and 15 March, resulted in an additional agreement between all parties to the existing ceasefire agreement.  As a result of these talks, Iran joined Turkey and Russia as guarantor states.  The Russian Reconciliation Centre for Syria, officially known as the Centre for Reconciliation of Opposing Parties and monitoring of refugee migration in the Syrian Arab Republic, declares that it is an “information and peace office” with the stated aim of speeding up peace negotiations between the Syrian Arab Republic and opposition groups. [Citation required] It is a joint government venture between Turkey and Russia, created in agreement with the U.S.-led coalition and based at the Khmeimim air base in Latakia, Syria. It should also coordinate humanitarian missions and organize places to sign ceasefire agreements.  After the signing of the reconciliation agreement in mid-2018, thousands of residents expelled as a result of the bombing returned home. They felt they were improving security when the open military conflict ceased and because most of the people in the region remained in the area.  But the living situation was poor and did not improve despite promises to provide more services.